* Seikan Tunnel
Since this tunnel is positioned as part of the International Highway Project, the most desirable driving method is that cars can drive on their own.Therefore, it is necessary to consider this first.Many automobile tunnels have been built in Japan until now, but the size isCurrently, the standards are almost set, and Figure 1It is like.If the transportation demand is 10,000 vehicles / day or less, one lane will be used for one way, and one tunnel will be used for the up and down lines.When transportation demand increases, another tunnel will be added and used as two lanes on each side.
In addition, since it is an undersea tunnel, it is necessary to provide an advanced tunnel and a work tunnel.Looking at the example of the Seikan Tunnel, Figure 2It seems that each will be made in such an arrangement.Advanced shafts and work shafts will be used for ventilation or pipelines even after the tunnel is opened, and will also be used for maintenance work.Regarding the Japan-Korea tunnel, joint management of various facilities such as optical communication cables, superconducting power transportation facilities, natural gas supply facilities, and transportation of drinking water due to global warming will be considered in response to future communication and energy problems. Be done.
* Honshu-Shikoku Bridge
However, the biggest problem in this case is ventilation.Since automobiles emit exhaust gas, large ventilation equipment is required in the case of long tunnels.Figure 3 shows the Kanetsu tunnel constructed by the Japan Highway Public Corporation.Ventilation equipment in Japan, but it is quite a huge equipment (for reference,Euro tunnelとTrans-Tokyo Bay RoadVentilation equipment posted).
This ventilation system is a shaft-feeding / exhausting system, and the construction cost is slightly lower than that of the cross-flow system.
However, in the case of the Japan-Korea tunnel, the length is several tens of times longer than the above tunnel, so the ventilation equipment cost is extremely high.A further decisive disadvantage is that shafts and inclined shafts cannot be built because of the undersea tunnel.The total ventilation volume varies depending on the traffic volume, but 1,000 to 2,000 m 3 / s is required. In the onshore tunnel, air is sent and discharged from the ground by dividing it every 1 to 2 km and establishing a shaft.If the total length is 20 times that of the Kanetsu tunnel and the horsepower of the blower per unit length is tripled, the annual electricity charge alone will reach more than 3 billion yen, which is an unrealistic plan.
There are various difficulties in the method of self-propelling a car in a tunnel.However, the tunnel will probably open 20 to 30 years later, during which time a new Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) will be developed to enable autonomous driving within the tunnel.In addition, it can be used in a fairly realistic manner, such as the practical application of a current collector electric vehicle.By the way, the inside of the tunnel is a closed space, and it is difficult to manually drive the space for a long time due to psychological pressure and the like.
Therefore, driving in a tunnel needs to be automated, but it is not necessary to completely unmanned driving, and since a person is actually in a car, the automatic driving device can be coordinated with the movement of the person. In addition, it may have a character of assisting a person's driving operation.
For this reason, it will be necessary to design the tunnel with ergonomic considerations such as the driving support road system (AHS) and the arrangement of lights and traffic lights.Therefore, the simple induction type of the current collecting type automobile described above is an aid to automatic driving.In addition, it is necessary to install a guideway signaling equipment to prevent collisions in the front-rear direction.
Another problem is that in Japan, roads drive on the left side, but in South Korea, they drive on the right side.When driving a car through the Japan-Korea tunnel, it is natural to drive on the left side to Tsushima according to domestic regulations.Therefore, it is necessary to switch left and right in some section between Tsushima and Geojedo.If customs clearance is carried out at some point, that point will be a turning point.At this point, all vehicles will stop and the occupants will get off, making it easier to switch left and right.However, if the almost free border crossing that is currently done in European countries is to be carried out, it will be necessary to create a left-right turning point by grade separation somewhere.In that case, it is necessary to make the driver fully understand that the left and right sides have been switched, and take all possible measures to prevent accidents.
There are many achievements in passing railroads through long tunnels.Currently the longest in the worldSeikan TunnelHas a total length of 53.85km.The total length of the Japan-Korea tunnel is 250km, but it will relay the islands of Iki and Tsushima.In this case, Iki and Tsushima will not be able to reach the surface of the earth due to their linear relationship, and will be a tunnel under the ground.However, this is the same as an underground tunnel on land, so the longest distance at the bottom of the water is about 70km from Tsushima to Geojedo.Therefore, if the experience of the Seikan Tunnel is extrapolated and used as a railway tunnel, it is considered that there are few technical problems.Figure 4 shows the tunnel cross section of the Seikan Tunnel.However, the Seikan Tunnel is constructed based on the Shinkansen standard.
It seems preferable that the Japan-Korea tunnel be constructed according to almost the same standards.In addition, when excavating a machine such as a boring machine (TBM),Since the tunnel cross section is circular, Fig. 5become that way.However, as will be described later (at the research stage, the introduction of the French-made TGV was not intended, and in the future, this will be done.Survey comparison with TGVSince the vehicle gauge of direct trains to South Korea is a little smaller than that of the Japanese Shinkansen, the tunnel cross section can be a little smaller.There is a possibility of getting on the Japanese Shinkansen to Busan, and the vehicle gauge of the Korean National Railways is almost the same as the Japanese Shinkansen above the platform part.
Therefore, it is considered that the above-mentioned cross section is used for the tunnel cross section.Since the tunnel section naturally becomes an electric track, it is naturally necessary to draw an overhead line and supply electric power to it as shown in this cross-sectional view.Since the running vehicle will be a Shinkansen train, the electric system is 25KV alternating current.Therefore, a substation with a capacity of about 30,000 KVA must be installed every 20 to 30 km.
In the future, depending on the progress of the Yamanashi Linear (Maglve) Line (see: Future Japan-Korea Tunnel Concept Map), which is in the experimental stage, it will have a great impact on the advanced transportation network system between Japan and South Korea and throughout Northeast Asia. I can say.
Regarding the linear moter car, at the 8th committee (12) of the "Superconducting Maglev Railway Practical Technology Evaluation Committee" centered on academic experts, "One of long-term durability and economic efficiency" While continuing challenge to consider is in the department, it has received the evaluation of the prospect on the technology for practical use as an ultra-high-speed mass transportation system is considered to have standing. "In order to solve problems such as long-term durability, cost reduction, and improvement of aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle, it is decided to continue running tests aiming for practical use in the preceding section for about 12 years after 5. (Reference site: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, "Linear Motter Car" homepage).
Since the total length of the Seikan Tunnel is 54km, substations are installed on both sides of the tunnel to supply power from there.In the case of the Japan-Korea tunnel, a substation can be set up on each land between Kyushu and Iki Tsushima to supply power to the tunnel.However, since the bottom of the tunnel extends to 70km between Tsushima and Geoje Island, one or two substations must be installed in the middle.Therefore, it is necessary to secure a space of about 1 m × 2 m × 20 m on the seabed and to wire a high-voltage cable to that point.Furthermore, when taking a railroad, passengers will be operating directly, so there is no need to install a terminal (however, with the introduction of the French TGV, there are differences in the signal and control system, and mutual access will be an issue for future study).
Regarding freight transportation, if you connect the Shinkansen to the Korean railway through the Japan-Korea tunnel, the Shinkansen track and the railway track (including TGV) in Korea are both standard gauge (1435 mm), so you should use the Japan-Korea tunnel. Passing freight trains can go directly to anywhere in Korea.However, since the Shinkansen in Japan is built as a passenger railway, there are problems such as difficulty in handling it for the transportation of general freight.On the contrary, the track standard for entering conventional lines in Japan is narrow gauge (1066 mm), and direct operation is not possible.
Therefore, since container transportation will be the mainstay, a container transshipment base will be set up on the Kyushu side.This requires a fairly large transshipment base, but it is also a good idea to use the surplus rail freight equipment of the Chikuho coalfield.
Here, the containers loaded on the Japanese freight cars are transshipped to the freight cars that go directly to the Korean side.Transshipment of containers between railroad freight cars is rare in the world, but it is helpful to know that international freight is carried out at the border between Spain and France.In addition, transshipment of containers for South Korea transported by truck from northern Kyushu and western Chugoku to container freight cars and vice versa will also be carried out at this base.From the point of view of freight transportation alone, the Korean railway has been extended to the base in northern Kyushu.It is not appropriate to transport large bulk cargo (coal, cement, ore, grain, etc.) by rail through the Japan-Korea tunnel.Considering that large cargo is being converted to domestic shipping in domestic transportation, the same idea will be applied to transportation between Japan and South Korea.
Railroads can also generally carry cars on freight cars.Therefore, it is possible to take a method in which a car is loaded and transported on a railroad only in a tunnel section, and when the car exits the tunnel, it runs by itself and arrives at the destination.
English Channel Railway (Euro) TunnelIn the case of the train (Le Shuttle) operated by (see photo)2 steps (1 step = large vehicle in some cases)A car train system is adopted in which a car is placed on a freight car and passengers generally get on the passenger car.
Loading and unloading of passenger cars on freight cars is carried out by self-propelled staff.Generally, in Europe, what is called a car sleeper is popular.In this case, the passenger sleeps in a sleeping car, arrives near the destination the next morning, and self-propells from there.The same method is applied for tunnel passage.
Of course, since the railway operates directly, it may be extended not only in the tunnel but also in a longer distance section such as using a sleeping car.
For freight vehicles, only the inside of the tunnel can be transported by rail in the same way.However, when a large freight car is placed on an ordinary freight car, it may protrude from the vehicle gauge, so a method such as placing the freight car on the bottom floor or lowering only the wheel part such as a kangaroo under the floor is used.In this way, when loading a car into a freight car, a space for parking the car is inevitably required for meeting.This is a ferry terminal.
The space for this will vary depending on the amount of transportation, but it will require 200 to 300 passenger cars and an area of 10,000 to 15,000 m2.In addition, facilities for resting passengers and lorry crews are needed.This is similar to a highway service area.
The Korean government plans to construct an expressway connecting "Busan-Geojedo" (total length, 2009km) by the completion of construction in 8.2.The project consists of two slanted bridges with a total length of 230m and 475m, and a 40km submerged tunnel at a depth of 3.4m.
The groundbreaking ceremony for the connecting road (Busan-Geoje Bridge) connecting Gadeokdo Island in Busan City and Geojedo Island in Gyeongsangnam-do (Gyeongsangnam-do) was held on November 2003, 11 in front of the Busan New Port Public Relations Center.
Until 2010, the project cost of 1 billion won (about 4,469 billion yen) will be invested.
This road is 8.2 km long and has four lanes up and down, connecting Gadeokdo Tenka-dong, Gangseo-gu, Busan and Gyeongnam Geoje City Mayor Kimenyanagikori.
Of all the sections, the 3.7km section of "Katokujima-Otakeshima" is the first "immersed tunnel" construction method in Japan to build a structure on land and fix it to the seabed. The section 4.5 km will be constructed as two "cable-stayed bridges" respectively.
The construction of the project will be handled by the government, Busan City, and Gyeongsangnam-do, with a consortium of 9,996 billion won invested by the government, Busan City, and Gyeongsangnam-do. To support.This road belongs to Busan City and Gyeongsangnam-do when it is completed, but for 4,473 years, the contractor has introduced the "BOT" method, which collects tolls and manages and operates it.
If this road opens, the distance between Busan and Geoje will be shortened from 140km to 60km, and the travel time will be shortened from 2 hours 10 minutes to 50 minutes.In addition, it will disperse the traffic volume on the Nankai Expressway and the Gyeongbu Expressway, and will be of great help in processing import and export goods from Busan / New Port, Mongolian / Xinhu Industrial Park, and Koji / Shipbuilding Industry.Prior to this, in October 2003, Busan City held a groundbreaking ceremony for the construction of the "Katoku Ohashi", which is part of the "Busan-Geoje" connecting road, and began construction.